Paris’in meşhur yerleri arasında Notre Dame Katedrali, Louvre Müzesi, Église de la Madeleine, Champs-Élysées (Şanzelize) ve Eyfel Kulesi sayılabilir. Bu yerlerin İngilizce tanımları ise aşağıdaki gibidir;
The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. Constructed in 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World’s Fair, it was initially criticized by some of France’s leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world. The tower is the tallest structure in Paris and the most-visited paid monument in the world: 6.98 million people ascended it in 2011. The tower received its 250 millionth visitor in 2010.
The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building. Its base is square, 125 metres (410 ft) on a side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930. Due to the addition of the aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Not including broadcast aerials, it is the second-tallest structure in France, after the Millau Viaduct.
The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second. The top level’s upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground,] the highest accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift (elevator) to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually only accessible by lift.
Notre-Dame de Paris
Notre-Dame de Paris, also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the eastern half of the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement ofParis, France. The cathedral is widely considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture, and it is among the largest and most well-known church buildings in the world. The naturalism of its sculptures and stained glass are in contrast with earlierRomanesque architecture.
As the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Paris, Notre-Dame is the parish that contains the cathedra, or official chair, of the Archbishop of Paris, currently Cardinal André Vingt-Trois. The cathedral treasury is notable for its reliquary which houses some of Catholicism’s most important first-class relics including the purported Crown of Thorns, a fragment of the True Cross, and one of the Holy Nails.
In the 1790s, Notre-Dame suffered desecration during the radical phase of the French Revolution when much of its religious imagery was damaged or destroyed. An extensive restoration supervised by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc began in 1845. A project of further restoration and maintenance began in 1991.
The Louvre or the Louvre Museum is one of the world’s largest museums and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (ward). Nearly 35,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square metres (652,300 square feet). The Louvre is the world’s most visited museum, receiving more than 9.26 million visitors in 2014] It is also one of the largest.
The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built as a fortress in the late 12th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIVchose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre primarily as a place to display the royal collection, including, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation’s masterpieces.
The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum renamed the Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon’s abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during theSecond French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and bequests since the Third Republic. The collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities; Near Eastern Antiquities; Greek, Etruscanand Roman Antiquities; Islamic Art; Sculpture; Decorative Arts; Paintings; Prints and Drawings.
The Louvre is the world’s most-attended museum in 2015.
Église de la Madeleine
A convent of the Dominican Order and a Gothic church was built in the 13th century on the Place des Prêcheurs. However, it was burned down in 1383. It was rebuilt, but came down in 1465. The current church building was constructed in its place in the seventeenth century. It was designed by architect Laurent Vallon (1652-1724), and it was built from 1691 to 1703.The facade was designed by architect Henri Révoil (1822-1900) from 1855 to 1860, and it serves as an example of Second Empire architecture. It was renamed in honour of Mary Magdalene in 1822.
Over the centuries, a number of renowned figures have been baptised in this church. On July 21, 1535, the son of François de Malherbe(1555–1628), also named François de Malherbe, was baptised in the church. A century later, André Campra (1660–1744) was baptised here on December 3, 1660. Eighteen years later, Gaspard de Gueidan (1688-1767) was also baptised in the church. Additionally, a century later, Louis-Charles-Jean-Baptiste Michel, who served as Bishop of Fréjus and Toulon from 1829 to 1845, was baptised in the church on July 12, 1761. More recently, the painter Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) was also baptised in this church.
Emmanuel de Fonscolombe (1810-1875) served as a chapel master.
The church has a fair amount of art pieces. For example, paintings inside the church include: La mort de St.Joseph by Jean-Baptiste van Loo (1684–1745), Madeleine chez Simon by Michel Serre (1658-1733), La nativité de Jésus by Pierre Mignard (1612-1695),Annunciation Tryptych by Barthélemy d’Eyck (c. 1420–after 1470), and Le Martyre de Saint-Paul by Théodore Beyermann. There are also paintings by Joseph-Marie Vien (1716-1809) and Jean Daret (1613–1668).
The pipe organ, designed by Jean-Esprit Isnard (1707-1781), dates back to 1743. Additionally, it is listed.
The church building was damaged by the 1909 Provence earthquake on June 11, 1909.
The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (French pronunciation: [av(ə).ny de ʃɑ̃z‿e.li.ze] ( listen)) is a boulevard in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) long and 70 metres (230 ft) wide, which runs between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located. It is known for its theatres, cafés and luxury shops, and for the military parade that takes place each year on the avenue on 14 July to celebrate Bastille Day. The name is French for the Elysian Fields, the paradise for dead heroes in Greek mythology. The French proudly nickname this world-famous avenue “la plus belle avenue du monde” (“the world’s most beautiful avenue”).
The avenue runs for 1.91 km (1.18 mi) through the 8th arrondissement in northwestern Paris, from the Place de la Concorde in the east, with the Obelisk of Luxor, to the Place Charles de Gaulle (formerly the Place de l’Étoile) in the west, location of the Arc de Triomphe. The Champs-Élysées forms part of the Axe historique.
The lower part of the Champs-Élysées, from the Place de la Concorde to the Rond-Point, runs through the Jardin des Champs-Élysées, a park which contains the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais, the Théâtre Marigny, and several restaurants, gardens and monuments. The Élysée Palace, the official residence of the Presidents of France, borders the park, but is not on the Avenue itself. The Champs-Élysées ends at the Arc de Triomphe, built to honour the victories of Napoleon Bonaparte.